Monday, 25 November 2013

The Orion Nebula is the only nebula visible from Earth with the naked eye

The Orion Nebula is a diffuse nebula situated south of Orion's Belt in the constellation of Orion. It is one of the brightest nebulae, and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky.

A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and otherionized gases. The Orion Nebula is one of the most scrutinized and photographed objects in the night sky, and is among the most intensely studied celestial features.

The nebula has revealed much about the process of how stars and planetary systems are formed from collapsing clouds of gas and dust.

Astronomers have directly observed protoplanetary disks, brown dwarfs, intense and turbulent motions of the gas, and the photo-ionizingeffects of massive nearby stars in the nebula.

Orion’s nebula might hold the answer for many of the millions of questions about the universe.

Monday, 18 November 2013

Here comes the comet that will dazzle the Moon

Comet ISON is racing through the solar system, and 28 November will be only one million kilometers from our star. This will cause a cosmic spectacle since the ice in it evaporate and form a characteristic tail. Some scholars argue that will outshine the moon.

Comet ISON high speed travel through the solar system, and astronomers can not wait 28 November because, as they say, cause a real cosmic spectacle.
The heavenly body will then undergo incredibly close to the sun , which will cause the evaporation of ice within the comet which will result produce characteristic and clearly visible tail.

Using a network of telescopes Russian International Scientific Optical Network ( ISON ) comet was first discovered in September last year. When 28 November is gone along with the sun , the stars of our being is only a million kilometers, which is 150 times smaller distance of Earth from the Sun.

 That the whole situation even more interesting , ISON will pass 100 times closer to the Sun than in 1997. flew the Comet Hale - Bopova , which is 18 months could be seen with the naked eye. Close to the sun will also heat up the comet , composed of ice, metal and stone to 2,760 degrees Fahrenheit, so it will be much brighter than most comets , and some scientists say we could not overshadow the Moon .

Friday, 25 October 2013

Scientists just discovered a new human body part!

And you thought we knew everything we could know about body parts. Thanks to new technology, scientists have discovered that our eyes' corneas don't have 5 layers, as previously believed, but rather 6.
The new layer, called Dua's Layer is only 15 microns thick. If that doesn't mean much to you, consider that this layer is smaller than beach sand and mist. The cornea itself is only 500 microns thick, but is incredibly tough and strong.
The new discovery will lead to entire ophthalmology textbooks being rewritten, as well as probably better surgical treatments for certain problems that are caused by the tearing of this previously unknown layer.

And you thought we knew everything we could know about body parts. Thanks to new technology, scientists have discovered that our eyes' corneas don't have 5 layers, as previously believed, but rather 6.

The new layer, called Dua's Layer is only 15 microns thick. If that doesn't mean much to you, consider that this layer is smaller than beach sand and mist. The cornea itself is only 500 microns thick, but is incredibly tough and strong.

The new discovery will lead to entire ophthalmology textbooks being rewritten, as well as probably better surgical treatments for certain problems that are caused by the tearing of this previously unknown layer.
And you thought we knew everything we could know about body parts. Thanks to new technology, scientists have discovered that our eyes' corneas don't have 5 layers, as previously believed, but rather 6.
The new layer, called Dua's Layer is only 15 microns thick. If that doesn't mean much to you, consider that this layer is smaller than beach sand and mist. The cornea itself is only 500 microns thick, but is incredibly tough and strong.
The new discovery will lead to entire ophthalmology textbooks being rewritten, as well as probably better surgical treatments for certain problems that are caused by the tearing of this previously unknown layer.

Read more at 
And you thought we knew everything we could know about body parts. Thanks to new technology, scientists have discovered that our eyes' corneas don't have 5 layers, as previously believed, but rather 6.
The new layer, called Dua's Layer is only 15 microns thick. If that doesn't mean much to you, consider that this layer is smaller than beach sand and mist. The cornea itself is only 500 microns thick, but is incredibly tough and strong.
The new discovery will lead to entire ophthalmology textbooks being rewritten, as well as probably better surgical treatments for certain problems that are caused by the tearing of this previously unknown layer.


Monday, 21 October 2013

Russia - U.S. shield against asteroids

Last month, the United States and Russia, a decade-long nuclear-athletes have signed a very important agreement on strategic nuclear partnership aimed at developing nuclear weapons capable of defending the Earth from dangerous asteroids, writes Daily Mail.
The main objective of the agreement is "to develop an international system of defense against asteroids."

As experts say, the agreement is a step closer to creating a technology that will soon provide protection from the heavenly bodies that can destroy life on Earth.

The agreement, which creates a legal framework for cooperation between scientists in the United States and Russia signed a U.S. Secretary of Energy Ernest Moniz and general director of the Russian federal state-owned Sergei Kiriyenko.

- This agreement creates a space for scientific cooperation and the process of building the relationship between research and technical communities the U.S. and Russia - said during the signing Monic.

The idea of ​​signing, dating back in 1995. , when they met the designers of nuclear weapons from the United States and the former Soviet Union and concluded that the threat of an asteroid impact is present, and that it should be taken very seriously and find a way to fight it.

It's been more than 18 years, astronomers have since found more than 10,000 asteroids that could one day be able to collide with our planet. Almost nine percent of these celestial bodies, potentially threatening the Earth long as more than a kilometer away, which means that their attack caused extensive damage to our planet.
Using weapons that Earth has, warn scientists would need to know for an asteroid the decade ahead, and to successfully defend.

If the strike out later, there would be no time to complete a successful response, but well-placed nuclear strike was not enough to avoid the destruction of life on Earth.

With no defense for 700,000 years we will perish like the dinosaurs

According to calculations of scientists, impact similar to that which killed the dinosaurs can be očekujei the next 700,000 years. But experts point out that even small rocks, long, between 100 and 300 meters, could wipe out the planet for entire cities and nations.

Monday, 30 September 2013

The core of our galaxy is about to explode

It seems that there is nothing so peaceful as the scene of the Milky Way in the summer sky - or at least so we thought. In reality, the center of our galaxy is a mess, made from stars that are spinning with incredible speed, super nova remnants and highly magnetised neutron stars. All these orbits around monstrously large black hole with a mass of 4 million times the mass of the Sun.

And things will soon become more violent. Astronomers have detected the gas cloud, called G2, which decays to hasten towards the center of the black hole. Later this year, the black hole will begin to consume the gas cloud. As gas slowly accelerates to incredible speeds, it collides with other things that come to meet him, is heated and radiate incredible pace.

A similar event 10 years ago created so intense outburst of light that was as bright as a million suns. We know this because the light echoes still refuse the center of the galaxy.

Judging by the astronomer
Shep Doeleman, the upcoming event is expected to last a year or more, and he classifies as a matter that we will experience a once in a lifetime.

Despite its enormous size, the black hole is still a thousand times too small to be able to see the Hubble Space Telescope and on top of that, Interstellar dust blocks all light.

However, the wavelength of the radio waves of about 1 millimeter can succeed and give us insight into this black hole.

International Network of radio plates

Doelman currently organizing Event Horizon Telescope, a project that should create an international network of radio plate to work as a TV. They will collect the incoming microwave radiation, which is like a light, but with a higher wavelength. It is a one-sided process - the plates will passively receive radio signals emitted by sources in the center of the galaxy.

Among the plates would be a physical connection, but the data will simultaneously come to them around the world.

The data will be collected by a super-computer and will keep them on the hard disk. He will then work with them to create, Do 2015. year, according to Doelman, picture shadow of the black hole.

Friday, 27 September 2013

All mammals, big or small, have about the same number of heartbeats in their lifetime!

A heart beat is such an individual thing. Your heart speeds up when you're exercising or when you're excited.

It slows when you sleep or are in a very calm state. Expanding this concept, heartbeats are also individual to species. Smaller creatures have faster heart beats than larger ones.

So you would expect all beings to have a different number of heartbeats in their lifetime right?
Wrong. Living creatures, despite their differences, have a similar number of heartbeats during their lifetime. This number is around 1.5 billion.

Large animals live longer but they also have slower heart beats. Smaller animals live shorter lives and have more frequent heart beats. Hence, most creatures have a similar number of heart beats.

If you think about time as measured by heartbeats, all creatures experience the same length of life - a lifespan of 1.5 billion heartbeats.

Monday, 23 September 2013

In Russia, discovered the remains of an unknown human specie

Russian paleontologists have found in the Altai, the traces of an unknown type of the first men. The study of the genome of human remains were found in the famous Denisova cave, scientists have found that it corresponds to 17% of the Neanderthal genome, and 4% belong to an unknown hominid.

Sensational discovery forces archaeologists to continue their excavations. Currently, studies are done in older layers than the finding of "denisovec."

It is not a sensation revealed by the survey. Decoding the DNA of the remains of the primitive people of Altai denisim cave, found that 6% of genes have similar modern inhabitants of Southeast Asia.

It gave the right to the head of research, academician Anatoly Derevjanko Denisovca attributed to subspecies of modern man. He also cast light on the process of division of mankind, which occurred 60-70 thousand years ago, says archaeologist Michael Šunkov:

A part of the population went to the Altai, where the remains denisovca, while others emigrated to the southeast. In addition, the transit places - in Southeast Asia, China - in the genes of the excavated remains are found traces denisovca.

On the other hand, the 6% that were found among the modern inhabitants of the south-east, saying that the "Denisovac" involved in the formation of the modern human form.

In addition, during the excavation, archaeologists discovered in a nearby cave traces of Neanderthals, who lived at the same time as the denisovec. Earlier it was thought that Neanderthals did not come this far to the east. The idea has emerged that the two hominid groups participating together in the formation of modern man, a scientist explains:

This is called. inbreeding - mixing in certain territories. Our recent work has shown that the denisovtci and Neanderthals, found in our cave, also mixed. And it's a sensational result.

Now picture the origin of humanity as follows: there are four lines of development of modern humans: Homo sapience African, Eurasian Neanderthals, Altai denisovec and oriental man - a resident of the territory of present-day China.

An earlier popular theory monocentrizma - man exodus from Africa, is seriously compromised. Seems plausible ideas about academics Derevjenka polycentrism, which is confirmed by the Russian paleontologists and archaeologists.

In the scientific world, the discovery of the remains "denisovca" is in second place after the discovery of a Higgs boson. For outstanding discoveries in the study of ancient history, 12 June 2013, Anatoly Derevjanko received the State Prize of the Russian Federation.

Wednesday, 18 September 2013

Neutron stars have so much gravity that the maximum height of a 'mountain' is 5mm!

A neutron star forms from the collapsing core of a massive star immediately following the star's exhaustion of it's fusion energy reserves. The outflow of radiation from the stellar core suddenly switches off and the core can no longer support the overlying layers against the inward force of gravity.

The rapidly mounting pressure of the infalling layers squeezes the electrons and protons of the core together to create neutrons and neutrinos. The neutrinos immediately escape into space but the neutrons crowd closer and closer together until they reach the density of an atomic nucleus. The tallest possible mountains on a neutron star can only be about 5mm tall due to their gravity.

At this stage, if the compressed stellar core is less than the Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit of about 3 solar masses, the neutrons are able to resist further collapse. Otherwise, a black hole forms. The star's collapsing middle layers rebound against the newly-formed solid neutron core. This generates a shock wave which heats and blows off the surface layers as a Type II supernova explosion.

Left behind is a rapidly spinning neutron star which has a strong magnetic field with poles that are usually aligned with the pole's of the star's rotation. Two oppositely directed beams of radio waves escape from the poles and sweep around like a lighthouse beam, producing a series of regular radio blips that can be detected from Earth. The result is a pulsar.

Monday, 16 September 2013

Black holes are hidden in the Hadron Collider

Five years ago, was officially launched in the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest particle accelerator, which is an organization created by the European Nuclear Research CERN. The building Collider and research involved more than 10 thousands of scientists from more than one hundred countries. Russia has also made great contributions to the construction of accelerator technology, about a thousand of Russian scientists took part in the Collider.

The device has caused a storm - the researchers calculated that with him make breakthrough discoveries, including the decipherment of birth of the Universe. At the same time the media are afraid that they will perform the world ending because of the possibility that the accelerator form a microscopic black hole that will swallow I first collider, then the whole planet. But the apocalypse did not happen. As the scientists explain, when the energy generated by the Collider actually contributed to the formation of black holes, they would show up and in cosmic rays. But so far, no holes themselves, nor any sign of their presence is not there. In addition, specially performed research process, theoretically favorable for the formation of black holes have shown these unwarranted assumptions.

Regarding the findings, although derived colossal number of papers, the real breakthrough is yet to come, convinced the head of the laboratory for relativistic physics missiles at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Doctor of physico-mathematical sciences Alexei Kurepin:

- Only our device was announced more than a hundred works. But these are all ongoing works that allow us to plan further research. We need to find such nuclear reactions that allow us to say that there are some new state of nuclear matter. We go to it now, choose those nuclear reactions kje can provide this information.

Current as of today the so-called Standard Model - the theoretical structure of elementary particles - is not conclusive. How do scientists believe, it should be part of a deeper theory of microworld construction. This is called the new physics. Scientists estimate that the research on the Big Collider allow you to get at least a hint of what the deeper theory. In the opinion of the head of department of nuclear physics and astrophysics Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS Oleg Daljkarova.

- Few processes that should be posamtrani at the Large Hadron Collider were mainly related to the attempt to find the so-called Higgs BAŽON. It is a unique particle that is responsible for all the masses of elementary particles that can be seen now. It is in a unique field that would tie all the observed particles and that these particles has been given to those properties that we know. Without the modern theory of particles up in the air.

Higgs Bazon was meant more in 1964. in the framework of the Standard Model. But the results certainly do not prove that the answer is to be a new particle or not. Now scientists have suspended the experiments in order to modernize the Large Hadron Collider. Oleg Daljkarov says:

On this day happens modernization Collider, it will lead to increased intensity and energy increased about two times. Essential works will commence 2018th year. These experiments, I believe, will focus mainly on the possible discovery of particles that provide so-called supersymmetric theories which do not fit the standard model.

Currently scientists from Russia participating in all major Collider experiments. 2012th The Russian Federation has submitted an application for entry in CERN as association participants. According to the experts, it will significantly increase the contribution to the Large Hadron Collider.


Friday, 6 September 2013

You need to know at least 42 digits of pi to calculate the circumference of the universe!

The number of pi is a mathematical constant that is the ratio of a circle’s circumference to it's diameter, and is approximately equal to 3.14159.

It has been represented by the Greek letter “π” since the mid-18th century, though it is also sometimes written as “pi”. For thousands of years, mathematicians have attempted to extend their understanding of pi, sometimes by computing it's value to a high degree of accuracy.

In the 20th and 21st centuries, mathematicians and computer scientists discovered new approaches that- when combined with increasing computational power – extended the decimal representation of pi to, as of late 2011, over 10 trillion digits!

However, only a handful of digits are needed for most applications – only 11 decimal places are needed to calculate the circumference of the Earth to a millimeters, while only 42 are needed to find the circumference of a circle the size of the entire universe to within less than the diameter of a single proton!

So learn pi!

Monday, 2 September 2013

Life on Earth "started" on Mars?

Leading Geochemists again argue about whether the "seed of life" on Earth originated on Mars and then transferred to Earth by meteorites and volcanoes.

There is increasing evidence that entitle the hypothesis that life on Earth began on Mars, and thus deal with the BBC and the Guardian . Leading scientists in the field say there is one specific element that is of great importance for the origin of life and it can be found only on the surface of the Red Planet .
Professor Steven Benner , believes that life on Earth came meteorites , which have arisen as a result of meteor impacts on Mars or volcanic eruptions there. As evidence , he points oxidized molybdenum metal , which is considered the catalyst that helped organic molecules to develop the first living structure .
" Only then , when it became a highly oxidized molybdenum , then it could affect the formation of life, " said Benner , who is a professor at the " Westheimer Institute for Science and Technology " in the United States . " This form of molybdenum existed on Earth at the beginning of the creation of life , after about three billion years of the Earth's surface there is very little oxygen , and it is on Mars was enough. "
" This is another piece of evidence that tells us that life on Earth came Marovska meteorite , not that he started here . Analysis of Martian meteorites has shown us that there was no trace element Bor, and now believe that the oxidized form of molybdenum was also there. "
Another reason why it is difficult that life arose on Earth , Bener see that our planet is likely to be covered by water. Water prevents the necessary concentration of boron and thus disturbed the formation of the first forms of genetic molecules. Although the water existed on Mars at that time , it covered a much lower surface of the planet .
"The evidence is stacked and soon we might say - we're all Martians that life originated on Mars and came to Earth on a stone , " said Brenner on " Goldschmidt 2013 " conference in Florence. " It is fortunate that we have done here , as the two planets where life was possible , the Earth a much better choice . Martian Had our forefathers remained on Mars, we would not be argued about proreklam ..."

Friday, 9 August 2013

In 1054, a supernova was bright enough they could see it at all time for two years!

A supernova is a stellar explosion that is more energetic than a nova. Supernovae are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months.

During this short interval a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun is expected to emit over it's entire life span. The explosion expels much or all of a star’s material. Supernovae can be triggered in one of two ways: The sudden reignition of nuclear fusion in a degenerate star; or by the collapse of the core of a massive star.

Back on July 4 of 1054, a supernova was seen by Chinese, Arab, and possibly Amerindian observers near the star Zeta Tauri. For several months it remained bright enough to be seen during the day! The remnant of SN 1054, which consists of debris ejected during the explosion, is known as the Crab Nebula.

Monday, 29 July 2013

When the stars collide occurs ... gold!

When the stars collide occurs ... gold!
It is one of the great astronomy fun facts: most of the elements that make up our bodies did not exist when the universe was young. Then there was nothing except hydrogen, helium and lithium. Heavier elements such as iron are forged heat and pressure deep within the star much later.

Even stars can not create heavy elements like gold. This requires an incredibly strong shock wave, and until now it was not known what might fire him.

However, the team of astronomers from the Harvard might be able to come up with an answer.

The gold was created using titanium collisions between neutron stars - incredibly massive layers of the star remains after her death.

"People have raised a lot of random data, but until now it comes to actually debate was no concrete evidence and facts," said study leader Edo Berger.

However, everything changed last month when NASA's orbiting telescope detected beams of high energy gamma rays, which lasted only two tenths of a second.

These beams of gamma rays appear to be constant in the universe, but as bundles of long duration cause a supernova, or exploding star, bundles of short duration has not yet been able to explain.

When these beams flashed, astronomers immediately directed another telescope in Chile in the same spot and caught the glow of visible light. Once a week the Hubble telescope focused on the same spot, the light was still present, although much faded.

The characteristics of this light can be explained by the explosion of new atom whose mass is nearly 3,000 times the mass of the earth of which are radioactive and cause seeding. Some atoms of platinum, lead, and other heavy elements while some weighing several times the mass of the moon, pure gold.

The best explanation for this intense beam would be a clash of two neutron stars. Collisions are astounding and happen very quickly, and theorists believe that the neutrons are crucial for the formation of heavy elements.

Do these collisions in our system comes once in 100,000 years on average, and this could explain the lack of funds in our galaxy.

Friday, 26 July 2013

If you were able to hear frequencies lower than 20Hz, you could hear your muscles moving!

Our senses are amazing things. Although they don't give us a completely accurate picture of the world, they give us just enough information to be able to carry out our lives.

For example, you might know that humans can't ever hear certain sound frequencies. However, that's not such a bad thing. If you could hear frequencies under 20 hertz, you would actually be able to hear your muscles move!

Wednesday, 24 July 2013

Discovered a new moon of Neptune

Discovered a new moon of Neptune
The space telescope "Hubble" discovered a new moon orbiting the planet Neptune, confirmed by the U.S. agency NASA.

The moon is named "S/2004 S 1" and now it is 14 known moon orbiting a massive planet. This is the smallest moon in the Neptune system. Diameter is only 20 kilometers, and a full circle around Neptune made ​​every 23 hours.

American astronomer Mark Šovolter noted the point, as he studied segments of Neptune's rings.

NASA says the moon is about 100 million times paler than the weakest the stars visible to the naked eye. The moon is so small that it spaceship "Voyager" was not detected when it passed close Barely in 1989. year and explored the planetary system.

Šovolter observed movement of bright spots over 150 images of Neptune that the "Hubble" made ​​since 2004. by 2009. year.

Monday, 22 July 2013

When the atoms become quantum

Millennia atoms are represented phantoms whose existence is only hinted at but they stubbornly remained invisible. It was believed that the remains indivisible, and are so called, according to the Greek 'indivisible'. In the early 20th century, physicists knew that atoms carry a charged parts. Model which is usually resorted consisted of positively charged ball 'pudding' with the negatively charged "plums", Electron. Picture is broken Ernest Rutherford in 1911. when he asserted that the positive 'pudding' all compacted into dense core, or nucleus, and that the 'plum' electrons around the bay.
Rutherford's atom is even more puzzled scientists, since it went against all the laws of physics. The opposite charges are inexorably attracted to electrons and by law should end up in a spiral of positively charged nucleus in less than a millisecond, (and if not, their mutual negative charge would throw them out of orbit). But atoms are somehow successful housing the negative and positive charges.
This paradox is resolved Niels Bohr exactly a hundred years ago when he successfully merged with the new standard physics quantum theory from which further developed the model of atomic structure.
And more. Together the theory with experiment, understand the basics of how atoms and molecules are connected into. He explained that until then mysteriously repeat the properties of chemical elements that are visible on the periodic table. Most importantly, it revealed the fundamental role of quantum physics in the reality that surrounds us.
Although the technical details of Bohr's model turned out wrong, his approach is a significant observation of the atom, and it is to liberate the conclusions of which leads us to common sense and ignore the strange rules of quantum theory. Boron is unlike his contemporaries realized that the acceptance of quantum physics, the key to hidden secrets of nature. While other quantum confusion to despair, Pine headed path that led him to 'forest', and when the path forked into two paths going to both but remaining a traveler. He insisted that knowledge of reality means accepting the truth and mutually incompatible.
In the decades after his description of the atom, Bohr was a guide and interpreter among physicists who threw themselves to research the strange new world of the quantum. As noted J.R.Openhajmer in the development of modern quantum physics, "Niels Bohr's deeply creative, keen and critical spirit has led, limited, deepened and finally turned things around."

The father of the atom
Pine role in uncovering the secrets of the atom began in 1913. when a series of three technical article outlines a new atomic science.
Bor "is the first paved a solid and lasting path to understanding atomic structure and its dynamics," wrote physicist Abraham Pais in pine biography, Niels Bohr's Times (1991), and "in this sense can be considered the father of the atom."
Like all fathers, Pine is proud child of his but he was blind not to see its flaws. From the start he realized that his model is too simple to encompass the complexity of reality. But he was convinced that the atom can only be explained by quantum physics. "And that of course is the key to success Bohr," says science historian J. Heilbron (John Heilbron), University of California, Berkeley.
That it must resort to quantum theory, Bohr realized he was preparing his doctoral dissertation in 1911. He found that the electrons that carry current behave differently from those that are related to atoms, and quite unusual compared to the mechanical laws of classical physics.
"I realized that there was no way that would be using classical physics explain the behavior of electrons in metals," says physicist Alfred Goldhaber with Stony Brook Univesity, New York.
Various solutions have hinted that the problem could be explained by applying the Max Planck's quantum idea introduced in 1900. Based on experiments with thermal radiation, Planck concluded that the energy from the hot object emits only in indivisible packets, quanta, like individual grains of sand. A few years later, Einstein claimed that all radiation, including light, not only broadcast but also conveys the 'packets' (later called photons), although it was known that the light travels as a wave.
In the first decade of the 20th century, only a few serious scientists accept Planck's idea, and fewer still believed Einstein. But Pine is. While others condemned quantum contradictions, he did investigated. Due to the circumstances in which he grew up and was brought up, ready to go out to meet the challenges.
He was born in Copenhagen in 1885. academically educated in the family, a rich intellectual environment. From an early age prusustvovao the evening discussions between his father, physiologists, and family friends, some of whom were physicists, philosophers and philologists. Boron is absorbed multicultural ideas inherited in Danish history and geography at the crossroads between Germany and England. As children, he and his brother Harald, his father read aloud Goethe, Shakespeare, Dickens. Nils has consumed the Danish authors such as Kieregaard, Hans Christian Andersen, read the unfinished novel by Poul Martin Moller (Kierkegaard mentor) Adventures of a Danish Student. Wrinkles are deep discussion seemed full of dilemmas and contradictions, and they learned the language and logic that he would return to life.
From early education to college years at the University of Copenhagen with his brilliance attracted the attention of teachers and peers. "Family and friends, as well as teachers, recognized as a rare spirit that wore down, saw him as a thinker who goes in depth and width, and they went out to meet him in all ways to develop their skills," said Heilbron.
In science education, Bohr was equally accepted the German preference for theory and mathematics and the UK, which is more concerned with experiments. Although prone to theoretical work, for post-doctoral studies chose Cavendish Laboratory in Kembriđžu, soft British experimental physics at the time.
He enjoyed the magic Kembriđža, in the laboratory and in the village. He played football, and promoted knowledge of English reading The Pickwick Papers, with a little red dictionary that bought, but he liked hearing the J.J.Tomsonom. Thompson headed the laboratory, a distinguished scientist who discovered the electron, but Pine is located omissions in his work on metal electrons. Thomson is almost indifferent crossing pine remarks. Late in 1911. Pine luck Rutherford, who had passed news conference in Brussels on the subject of quantum. Shortly after that conversation Bor goes to the University of Manchester and joined the Rutherford team.
And in Manchester Boron is initially off of electrons, including beta particles detected by Rutherford. But she realizes that her secret hiding radioactivity in the core. Thus, his quest for truth turns to the atom.
Early in 1912. Pine works feverishly and with success. "I already went to work, examining every aspect of the atom, the mister to find everything possible," said Goldhaber. In June Bor brother writes: "It seems to me that I found a little bit about the structure of atoms." Modestly speaking, because it turned out that he had discovered that quantum physics 'hold' atom.
Bor was the first to try to apply quantum physics to atoms. But it is first pointed out that it can 'work'. He said that the correct theory of stable atoms must have the dimension of length that corresponded to the size of atoms, such as fork length uslovljavlja size of a bicycle wheel. The number of reasonable length for atomic fork was accessible only using the key number in the quantum theory, which is Planck's constant, combined with an electric charge and mass of the electron and the nucleus.
Understanding how quantum physics explains the behavior of atoms did not go straight. For his model of the atom Bohr applied the classical mathematical approach and then added to quantum physics in four specific ways. The two are directly related to Planck's theory of radiation, including the technical aspects of the energy of the electron. The other two were inspired by the processes hidden in the mysterious machinations of Bohr's enigmatic mind.
The first is often hailed as a crucial ingredient in the Bohr model of the atom, the electrons can occupy only certain orbits around the nucleus. In any such permitted orbit electron has angular momentum is equal to the product of Planck's constant divided by 2 pi. With such a limit Bohr could not explain why the hydrogen atom emits light only in certain very specific colors, or frequencies. The emitted light corresponded to the electron to 'jump' from one allowed orbit to another.
Of the many confusing aspects of the Bohr atom, this was the strongest. According to standard physics of the light should depend on how long you should make the electron orbiting the nucleus, what is its orbital frequency. But if the electrons emit light as they cycle, Pine noted, the atoms would radiate light all the time, and that is not happening. Hence Pine concluded that electrons occupy non-radiating orbits, and the atom is in a state of 'sleep', divides the frequency of light frequency of the orbit.
"This is out of the ground under the feet of many physicists, who assumed that this phenomenon within the atomic processes could be directly linked to developments in the micro-world," said Heilborn meeting of the American Physical Society in April.
The second congress smart remark offered an idea of ​​how to bridge the gap between quantum and classical physics. Electron far from the nucleus, Bohr said, would the frequency of light emitted close to the classical prediction. Since distant orbits close together, the orbital frequencies are nearly equal. So you jump from one to the other emits nearly the same orbital frequency of frequencies. It is otherwise stated what we know about the great facilities, quantum effects would be too small for us to notice - a key part of the final understanding of quantum reality.
The composition of atoms

To explain the mischief of classical physics to quantum theory Bohr explanations offered so that all could not fit in a professional work. Therefore, published a series of three papers under one title, "The composition of atoms and molecules," in the Philosophical Magazine. In the first part, which was published in July in 1913., With spectrum of colors emitted by hydrogen, was described by quantum rules for the electron orbits and quantum jumps of hydrogen atoms. The second part describes the arrangement of electrons in circles around a core of more complex atoms, which is the first step towards the explanation of the periodic table of elements. The third describes how atoms form molecules with shared electrons.
The reactions of the pine theory were mixed. While some found the idea brilliant, others was incomprehensible. Einstein was intrigued, but not convinced. But when an experiment confirmed congress predictions that certain colors in the spectrum of light that was thought to have actually come from hydrogen helium, Einstein is no longer doubted. When they show up for the experiment, said "This is a major step forward, Pine theory must be true."
But Bohr knew that his theory only glimmer of insight into reality, and to have shortcomings. Is successful, he believed, largely thanks to the simplicity of hydrogen. Over the next decade, attempts to also apply to more complex elements did not give results. Finally in 1925. Werner Heisenberg, a young German physicist who studied at the Bohr Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen, created a new mathematical approach that gave the right answers. Heisenberg's work marked the birth of modern quantum mechanics.
Around the same time, experiments to determine the particles sometimes behave like waves, and vice versa. Erwin Schrodinger's wave constructed version of quantum theory, which soon proved to be equivalent Hajzenbergovoj particulate version. Heisenberg in 1927. discovered the famous uncertainty principle: it is impossible to accurately measure a few svojstvava simultaneously, such as particle position and its momentum.
Once again the Pine explain the paradox. At a lecture in 1927. proposed the principle of complementarity. The light can be a particle or a wave depending on which experiment you choose. You can determine the position of an electron, or its momentum, but to design an experiment. You can not do both at the same time.
Pine komplenemtarnost provided the basis the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. In popular discussions this approach is put to the fore the role of observers in exposing reality, the point in bickering many physicists today. But Bohr was not talked about it in this way, says the philosopher of science Don Howard of the University of Notre Dame. Heisenberg was one that he focused on the role of observer.
Pine vision was much more subtle. He insisted that the properties of quantum systems do not have the exact meaning before they are measured. But the measure required a measuring instrument that communicates with a quantum system. Once the communication is established, an instrument for measuring a quantum system and a history become 'connected' in modern terminology. So how is it even possible to talk about the properties of a quantum system?
"This place gets Bor crucial idea in their thinking," Howard said at a meeting of physicists. If you define an experiment you want to perform, you can use the result to describe the property of a quantum system as it has the correct value, even if there is no exact value measurements. Of course, you could not talk about all the properties of the system at once, you have to choose what to measure.
"For Bor, two properties such as position and angular momentum are necessary for the complete value of the system and its behavior," said Howard. "But of them can only speak one at a time, not both at the same time, because we have to have exactly defined properties of the system only in the context in which this property can be quantified." And the context of measuring the position and angular momentum are physically incompatible . "It was a very good reason why we could not simultaneously be talking about well-defined values ​​for the position and well-defined values ​​of angular momentum," said Howard.
Multiple truths

Bohr's unique approach comes from the contradictions of his view of the world and the truth of his early youth. In fact, his research in quantum science have opened the way to a much broader view of the reality that surrounds us.
"The greatest satisfaction that earned him a research in the field of quantum physics in the wider field of philosophy was the discovery that more true ... come in complementary pairs," said Heilbron.
They recently published letters pine fiancee, Margaret Norlund, who wrote in the time of the survey atomovog model. They Bor lists various kinds of truths, those sermons, the great literary works, scientific truth, for we see that all are different but they are important. "This is something I am very touched, I can almost call it their religion - the truth is all of value."
Heilbron to see the parallels with the four methods that introduce the quantum atom - a lot of it is true, not all consistent.
"Although they differ in physical content, sometimes in conflict with math, but Bohr believed that all he needs," said Heilbron. "These four formulations Boru not only serve to define the borders of their speculations. He believed that each contains an element of truth, and therefore has an obligation to take everything into consideration, ie accept even if they are contradictory. The principle of inclusion at all costs, he became almost a religious rule. "
Standard Pine religion is not sympathetic. His mother was Jewish, which is not a practicing religious customs, Lutheran atheist father. As a guy, Niels attempted to accept the religion but soon found that she could not pass the test of logic and science. When this is the one occasion showed his father, this just laughed. This episode is described fiancee, "My courage is roaring at me, out of control, out of control, I finally know that now and I think I can."
Heilbron see in the beginning of Bohr's remarkable intellectual path.
"The encouraging smile man she admired most in the world made me feel that it belongs to the few who think freely, regardless of the standard beliefs that govern their class or culture, time or place," notes Heilbron.
Encouraged, not only thought, but he did it in a way others could think of. For him, the classical physics of uđžbenicima "far from the truth as microworld and conventional religious beliefs of the real importance of life," said Heilbron.
Bohr accepted the weirdness of the quantum world is not a heresy that should be avoided, but as a key solution to the problem. Calmness with which he approached the contradictions enabled him to formulate explanations of quantum paradoxes that have withstood the test of experiment, though many after his death in 1962. year.
Towards the end of life Boron is respected as the greatest nuclear physicist in the world. I still think that's another great physicist of all time, second only to Einstein. The legend of it was developed the 1920s and 1930s, as young scientists of all nations came to study at his institute in Copenhagen. Right there in the mid-1930s, formulated the first clear picture of the physics inside the atomic nucleus. Soon after, in collaboration with the American physicist Đžon A. Wheeler, Bohr came up with a theoretical explanation of the process of nuclear fission. Bohr atom was then finally fully constructed.
Wheeler once said that he wanted to study in Copenhagen because Bohr saw further into the future than others. How is that going for me Boru has puzzled others in much the same way that atoms are baffled physicists before Bora. Its penetration into the quantum reality it is mysterious as the strange mixture of quantum and classical physics in the hydrogen spectrum.
Perhaps, says Heilbron, his personal letters recently made public, offer new material for speculation about the Bohr genius and intellectual creativity in general.
And he adds: "His genius may not be repeated. Because, as Einstein once said, it's amazing what the mind is the Bohr did show up. "