Friday, 28 December 2012

Will the machines rise up against a man?

British scientists at Cambridge University draw up a study on whether the advanced technology could lead to the destruction of human civilization. Center for the Study of existential risks (Csere) analyzed, the risk of biotechnology, artificial intelligence, nanotechnology, and climate change.

Scientists say it would be dangerous to dismiss without thought of fear potential robot uprising against mankind, the BBC reported. Fear of rebellion machine and taking control of human civilization is the main theme of many science fiction films, and the most famous system "Skynet", attacking humanity in the movie series "Terminator."

Although this is a topic in the domain of fantasy, scientists say that the concept of machines that are becoming smarter than people deserves more attention.

"It is difficult to assess the seriousness of these risks, but it is in itself a cause for concern, given what's at stake," wrote the scientists on the website dedicated to the project Csere.

This project is jointly funded by the Cambridge philosophy professor Hugh Price, professor of cosmology and astrophysics Martin Rees and co-founder of "Skype" Jan Tallinn.

"A reasonable estimate is that in the next century or intelligence to get out of the limiting framework of biology. What we are trying to do is to push the reputable scientific community," said Professor Price.

He added that with the advancement of computers and robots, people can find themselves in a situation where it will depend on the mercy "of machines that are not evil, but whose interests do not include us." The results of the study will be presented next year.

Wednesday, 26 December 2012

The biggest storm that is raging in the Solar System

Probe "Cassini", orbiting Saturn, recorded a Photo powerful storm that is raging in the northern half of the planet. In the pictures that were sent on the same day on Earth, see the tornado vortex that resembles a hurricane that Sandy has recently hit the Caribbean and U.S. East Coast.

The storm was located within a stable structure hexagonal shape on Saturn's north pole by the early eighties revealed spacecraft "Voyager." It is believed that this form a hexagonal architecture of high-speed air stream, the so-called jet streams.

Storms like this are common on many planets of the solar system, according to the astronomers, "this phenomenon is similar to the 'Cassini' recorded at the south pole of Saturn a few years ago."

Probe "Cassini" spacecraft is the first that is (1997.) Was launched into orbit this gaseous planet. Since July 2004, when he came to her, she moved more than 6.1 billion kilometers, astronomers because it came to some important conclusions about the Saturn system, including the presence of liquid hydrocarbon lakes on Titan, and water geysers on the moon Enceladus.

Monday, 24 December 2012

Lens as a cell phone screen

Scientists at the University of Ghent have developed extremely small curved screens that are integrated into contact lenses.

Wireless technology in them can show a variety of information and pictures. Professor Herbert De Smet working on developing this technology is considered that, in contrast to previous similar contact lenses in the picture which is limited to only a small number of pixels, this technology makes it possible to view the contents inside the lenses use the entire curved surface.

Saturday, 22 December 2012

Scientists find immortality gene

Tiny freshwater polyp Hydra has long caused the interest of scientists. This animal is practically immortal and shows no signs of aging.

German researchers decided to find the genetic basis of the immortality of hydra, with amazement and declared that the secret kept in FOXO gene. It is well known, since it has all the animals and man.

It turns out that this gene supports stem cells in the active force, which causes permanent tissue regeneration.

Scientists now estimate that at least will identify factors that affect the operation of FOXO genes, such as ecology, child or lifestyle.

Thursday, 20 December 2012

Russian scientists have discovered a new phenomenon in nature

Russian scientists have discovered a natural phenomenon, which promises to be revolutionary. It turned out that medicinal substances can be effective in small doses. The point is that substances dissolved in water lose their properties in proportion to the amount of water in which are dissolved. Six years of research was needed to Russian scientists to prove that in this classical way like only 25% of the solution. Because the other 75% behaves atypically, their properties vary unexpectedly. This discovery promises visible changes in medicine and pharmacology. At low concentrations of substances, side effects of medication will be kept to a minimum.

Tuesday, 18 December 2012

What happened 65 million years ago?

For decades, scientists have argued over the cause of death of dinosaurs. A new study supports the theory that they ruled volcanoes.

The volcanic activity in the region belonging to India's killed the dinosaurs, say scientists from Princeton University. Scientists, who, for years, I can not decide whether dinosaurs killed volcanoes, meteors, asteroids, or something else entirely.

Scientists at the University of Princeton argue that the huge volcanic eruption in the region known as the "Dean of the Castle" near Mumbai caused toxic pollution of sulfur and carbon dioxide gas that killed the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.

"There's simply no evidence that the Earth was hit by a large enough meteorite or asteroid would cause mass mortality of living beings. Wholly with certainty claim to have done a volcano," said geologist Gerta Keller of Princeton.

Sunday, 16 December 2012

Is the universe compute simulation?

Physicists devised new experiments to test whether the universe is a computer.

Many philosophers have long believed that it is very unlikely that we live inside the machine.

This theory argues that every civilization which evolved in the post-human phase was able to produce on a large scale simulations, simulations size of the universe. Judging by the billions of worlds, it is very possible that if something like this is possible, if it had already happened.

If so, then statistically speaking, very possible that we are in the chain of simulations within simulations. The alternative - we are the first civilization in the first universe, it's almost absurd.

Professor Martin Savage of the University in Washington believes that while our current computer simulations can model the universe on a scale atomic nucleus, but there are indications of resource limits, if any, can not tell us whether the larger models possible.

Computers that are building these simulations share space in a four-dimensional network that allows researchers to examine the force that binds subatomic particles protons and neutrons - but also allows for other things to happen in the simulation, including the development of complex physical "signature" that scientists are not programmed.

In pursuit of these "signatures" such as restrictions on energy cosmic rays, hoping to find similarities with our universe.

If these signatures appear? Certainly we are in a computer program.

"If you make a large enough simulation, much like our universe should be the end result. Addition, there is one question - is it possible to communicate with other universes if they operate on identical platforms," Savage izajvio the news agency of the University of Washington and transmits the Huffington Post.

Friday, 14 December 2012

Israeli growers perform a new type of fruit

Scientists are already twenty years of struggling with the task to create such a variety of food, which would be not only beautiful but also delicious. Tropitaja, name discovery Mizrahija Professor Yossi Ben-Gurion University of Agriculture and Josi Cafrira from the settlement Bill, I exceeded all expectations.

She has a wonderful sweet-sour taste of tropical, violet-purple and fleshy mass, similar to the kiwi.

Tropitaja is now considered one of the most useful products that can be found in nature.

Wednesday, 12 December 2012

Have you heard of a new social network?

Microsoft prepares Socle - the latest social network, future rival Facebook and Twitter.

Microsoft says that Socle become a place where people share common interests. Like on Pinterest fast-growing site on the home page rotate the various posts related to religion, such as animals or music.

Socle network was launched in May as an experiment, and in that time has focused exclusively on students.


Monday, 10 December 2012

Created, best song for relaxation

The melody is called "Weightless", but experts warn that Manchester should not listen to while driving.

British scientists and musicians have created a perfect song to relax, which they say is more effective than massage.

Melody is due to specific sounds, rhythms, frequencies and intervals is ideal for
synchronization brainwaves and heart rate, leading to relaxation.

The melody is called "Weightless" , but experts warn that Manchester should not listen to while driving.

And David Lewis, a British expert on stress, stressed that "Weightless" is currently the best of the tested tunes for relaxation.

"Recordings of brain activity show that it strongly affects the brain, and not just the center of hearing but also those responsible for emotion," he said.

The respondents said that it's more relaxing melodies of nature walks, cups of tea and massages and all recently created songs that serve to relax.

Friday, 7 December 2012

Robot exercise for entry into the radioactive crater

Although he had a motor problem in the movement, Japanese scientists believe they are on the brink of sending the machine into the nuclear reactor in Fukushima.

Japanese industrial giant robot "Toshiba" on four legs, had bad luck on the first promotion - the press is stopped, so the researchers had to help him and to restart it. However, experts are sure that there will be similar problems when the robot is found in the crater of nuclear power reactors in the Japanese city of Fukushima.

Robot weighs 65 kilograms, the height of one meter, with wireless controls that issue by moving the head gear, such as those for playing video games, technology life has just begun to perform dangerous tasks in areas with high radiation - where a man would not have survived.

"We designed the robot after the incident in Fukushima, and the movement of the four legs was inspired by the animal world," the statement Goro sites worldwide Janasea, engineers' Tošibinog "branch of nuclear energy.

Four legs allow the robot to move around and up the stairs and down the stairs, to exceed the smaller obstacles, quickly changes direction. Also equipped with a mechanical arm that can manipulate, carrying a camera and equipment to detect radioactive particles.

The robot is still in prototype stage and hence no name, but I have great hopes that he will not get into one of four nuclear power reactors, which has become a source of danger after the tsunami of April 2011. in Japan. Scientists expected that this machine will only be able to be sent into the heart of the reactor in order to determine the true state of the reactor after the disaster.

Skeptics were exultant problems especially after the promotion, although experts "Toshiba" says that his main priority for the wireless network control that can operate in a radiation field. A shaky legs can be repaired and improved, say proponents of the research of the robot.

However, they point out that they need some time to test the robot before it is sent to the center of the reactor. Although scientists in Japan have some of the latest technologies and robotics champions in the production of humanoid machines, they are aware that they still have not brought to perfection robots that could withstand high radiation.

Wednesday, 5 December 2012

Composite Materials in Nuclear Energy

National Research Nuclear University (MIFI) and Kurčatovski Institute completed the first phase experiments with the material that is unusual for the production of nuclear fuel cladding - a composite material based on silicon carbide.
Its application efficiency of Russian nuclear power plants would be increased to 50%.Composite materials have very broad application. Can be used in planes and cars, as well as special-purpose technologies. In nuclear energy, because of its specificity, the introduction of various innovations including those related to composites is slow and cautious, preceded him long and thorough examination. The first experiments with the new shells for nuclear fuel have shown that they support much higher temperatures than those
zirconium. Changing the material would provide greater efficiency of nuclear power plants. A representative of the center of scientific research institute Kurčatovski, Gagarinski Andrew says:
- The lining may be different. For example for the reactors with water under pressure, which are common in Russia, for making coverings used
zirconium alloys. In other reactors even possible by steel or ceramics. Each material has its advantages and disadvantages, such as plasticity and permeability. What is the downside of experts covering the reactors with water pressure? The fact that contain zirconium.

In case of damage, caused when large amounts of water vapor, zirconium reacts with hydrogen transmitted them, and that's dangerous, expert says. Steel panels are good for many characteristics, but they absorb neutrons, so Thermoreactors not match very well. Composite panels have many of these shortcomings. Their advantages are high-temperature, low degradation properties because of radiation exposure, high operating reliability and corrosion resistance.
For now, the raw material for the production of composite shipped from Japan. However, it will be in Russia launched its own production, was convinced the main expert of the Institute of Nuclear Technology Business National Research Nuclear University Valery Astafjev:
- We're in the grace period of time, at this stage we will work on complex studies of these materials without fuel. We have the opportunity for their product based on the threads, so-called reinforced lining, but for now we use the Japanese strings. If we get positive results, we will work on the Russian technology of their production.
According to expert forecasts for testing the properties of materials in terms of radiation exposure will take several years. At the same time new material to Russia for nuclear energy and tested in the U.S., France and several other European countries. This is just the beginning of an international nuclear-composite race.

Monday, 3 December 2012

When the user dies: What happens to Facebook profile?

Have you ever wondered what happens to a Facebook profile, a person who died?

Forms for the deletion, Facebook permanently delete the user account and the accomplishment of the second form, the FB profile that turns into a sort of 'profile for the memory of' the deceased person. Change the profile has become a "virtual monument 'deceased, seeing all of her friends.

When this is done to it, no one can be declared, and the wall can be written only by those who already were friends.

Monday, 26 November 2012

Planet Earth is suffocating from gases that cause the greenhouse effect

18.11.2011. - 2012. matured in the atmosphere of Earth more than 37 billion tons of carbon dioxide
The record of the Earth's atmosphere pollution shocked scientists. In Germany, the published results of research experts of the Institute of sources of energy, which is renewable. According to the document, the content in the atmosphere of gases that cause the greenhouse effect, and is still rising.
German scientists have focused on a record level of industrial emissions of these gases over the entire period of observation. 2011th The Earth's atmosphere is past due more than 37 billion tons of carbon dioxide, which climatologists believe the main cause of climate change on the planet. About a quarter of the world's emissions of China made. Continue to follow the U.S. and Iran. Russia, according to the estimates of experts, has registered a reduction of emissions.
Expert of the Institute of Economic Forecasting RAN Porfirjev Boris explains that, as the Russian economy has been a structural changes, was adopted measures to increase energy efficiency of industrial production.
- Strong reduction of the 1990-ies was a result of the economic crisis, however, after 2000. The Russian economy has been growing. Grew and emissions. In doing so, the average annual growth rate of emissions was approximately 0.8 to 0.85 per cent per year, while the economy grew by about 4 percent a year. These results are important structural changes that have occurred in recent years at the expense of 20 branches, which require less energy. German research scientists have been published on the eve of the regular 18th UN Conference on the problems of global climate change. It will be held from 26 November to 7 December in Doha, capital of Qatar. It is assumed that the conference will work out a new agreement on the conservation of the Earth's climate. The document will replace the Kyoto Protocol, whose term expires this year of action.
Kyoto critics are again highlighted the inefficiency of the agreement. Has not managed to reduce the emission of gases that cause the greenhouse effect. On the contrary, they have risen at twice the 1990-year. Conservationists point out that the Kyoto Protocol has not put anyone super tasks. The main task was to draw the world's attention to the problem of climate on Earth - says the expert of the Russian Federation Mikhail
Julkin for industrialist and contractors.
- It can be argued that the attempt failed. Yet developed countries are largely fulfilled commitments - reducing emissions by 5 percent compared to the level of the 1990th year. Emissions have been reduced in this part of the world. The other thing, as they grew in that part of the world, who had no obligations. I would point out that under the Clean Development Mechanism in developing countries there are about 4 thousand projects. This means that billions of tons of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has not matured. I think this is a good result.
"Green" projects aimed at reducing emissions of industrial gases in the atmosphere, and work in Russia. They are the deflection of the supporting gas utilization, the implementation of new technology, the use of biofuels.
Russia, and beside Japan, Canada and many other countries, have made the decision not to participate in the second period Kyoto agreement. And that, primarily because, as industry giants such as China and the U.S. are not even involved in it. However, this does not mean that Russia back away from his obligations to low-carbon crossing the path of development, says a representative of the Ministry of Economic Development Oleg Plužnikov.
- The Russian government is now considering adopting a variant of the Interior liability limits emissions by 25 percent from the level of 1990-year. Here we are outside the EU. Hopefully, the EU will follow our example. I also hope that if the Doha such a goal if it is not checked, then it will be the least compliant. It is important that Russia is withdrawing from active attitude.
Russia is interested in a new climate agreement include a maximum number of participating countries, - said the expert.

Saturday, 24 November 2012

Memory that stores data for millions of years

Hitachi has managed to develop a solution for long-term storage of data and claims that in this way they can save hundreds of millions of years.

The technology that was introduced earlier this week in Tokyo, uses a very precise laser to the small pieces of silica glass incorporated dots binary code.

Optical microscope (paired with a computer capable to decipher the imprint) later used to obtain the original data stored on a piece of quartz glass.

Hitachi solution is such that it will be able to survive any apocalyptic scenario that you can imagine: a two centimeter square piece of quartz glass, fire resistant - Hitachi is one such sample is heated up to 1,000 degrees Celsius for two hours, and the data were then able to successfully recover .

This does not mean that Hitachi no obstacles that must be overcome. Capacity is a problem because the laminated quartz glass can save up to about 40MB per square inch. This puts it on par with the CD-R, but not in rankings with a much larger (and far less reliable) external drives.

Nevertheless, this technology makes it really fascinating way to archive important historical and cultural data.

Thursday, 22 November 2012

Scientists read minds patients with brain dysfunction

Scientists from the University of Western Ontario's claim to distinguish brain signals the patient, who for ten years in a state of vegetation.

Scientists constantly monitor the behavior of the blood vessels of the brain 39-year old Scott Rautlija. Having studied the specific parts of the brain response to some questions posed to healthy people, neurologists were asked the same questions that the patient, at the same time keeping track of blood vessels.

The result, according to scientists, surpassed all expectations, because they are clearly caught the answers yes and no. For example, 39-year old Canadian, who sustained serious head injuries in a car accident, said experts not to feel pain.

Neuroscientists believe that the new method of "dialogue" with such help many patients who have a similar diagnosis to communicate their thoughts and feelings.

Tuesday, 20 November 2012

The Russians made ​​a super-concrete

Russian scientists have made concrete which are not any terrible weather cataclysms. He not only is superior than other types of concrete, but is faster and hardens. This is particularly important for emergency repair of damaged bridges, dams, roads. In doing reconstruction work will now be able to perform in any weather conditions.
At first glance, everything is as usual: sand, gravel and cement. But instead of water is added to the solution of a special polymer fluid, which provides the unique properties of concrete, says senior researcher at the Russian University of Chemical Technology Mendeleyev Alexander Nikitjuk:
- We have examples where we have been working on a fairly low temperatures, down to minus 28 degrees Celsius. We evaluated the concrete during heavy rainfall and even under water.
Special liquid polymer encapsulates all the components, connect them, and also protects against chemical reaction. This is particularly noticeable if you drive down the samples in acid, says researcher of the Russian University of Chemical Technology Mendeleyev Jelena Pisarenko:
- We take a piece of plain concrete and drop it in hydrochloric acid. The first seconds are often very severe reaction. Concrete starts to crumble. Also working with new concrete. No external signs react.
This property, say the authors, will be useful for repair of industrial buildings, bridges and overpasses, which are constantly applied and chemically aggressive liquid reagents, for example atifriz solutions for roads.
An important feature is another new concrete - the speed at which it hardens. It is indispensable for patching holes in the dams or on airport runways. In order to gain strength plain concrete is required one month, and the new salary concrete harden for half an hour and be stronger than regular concrete, almost twice. Composite concrete universal. It can easily replace existing materials. In addition, scientists assure us that he will not be more expensive than ordinary cemen

Sunday, 18 November 2012

Here's why IQ does not measure real intelligence!

Every ten years, the average IQ increase by about 3 points, but does that mean that we are becoming more intelligent and the trend points to something else?

Psychologist James Flynn for years is higher than average IQ. As he puts it, every ten years, average IQ countries grow about three points, but that does not mean that people are getting smarter, and that trend has got him by name Flin effect, according to io9.

Flynn says that people are often confused, so comparing one's mind with IQ, but it is not. Intelligence measures, says Flynn, learned abilities, not innate ones. Education of children in schools is changing as time goes on and they perform better on standardized tests, including the IQ tests.

The Flin attitude contrasts with many other theories that IQ measures innate mental abilities that education, culture, the environment in which the individual lives can not influence. But two new studies substantiate the theory Flin.

The first study is a broad collapsed to popular theory that cultural and educational elements can not affect one's abstract thinking. It turned out that the abstract thinking and the applicable Flin effect. "Improvement of performance on IQ tests does not mean that we become more intelligent. This means that more people today are learning to think abstractly. Example, children in school today are learning algebra much earlier," said Mitchum Ejnsli author of the study.

But if IQ largely the result of environmental factors, what does that say about the intelligence at all? Are not some people are born with more gifts of intelligence than others? Probably not, says Professor Mitchum. Adults and do not differ too much in
neuro-pathological level. Certainly, those who have survived a brain injury or have had difficulties in the development and have different mental abilities, but others have more or less the same abilities.

So IQ tests really tell us about the impact of the environment and of experience, but that does not mean that they are unnecessary. What's more, they give us great insight into the changes in our culture.

Friday, 16 November 2012

What really happened to the Mayans?

Many civilizations in history have had their ups and downs, but few that have vanished as suddenly and as thoroughly as the Mayan culture.

What went wrong?

The answer to this question may have tried many scientists. The latest research shows that a great culture, which flourished for centuries in many respects, destroyed climate change and social action, not a disaster, such as volcanic eruptions, storms or disease. Faced with terrible, long-lasting drought, the Mayans were simply picked up their belongings and moved.

Maya civilization reached its zenith between the 300th and 600 in AD. In this so called. classical period of Guatemala, through Belize to the Yucatan rises the 60-odd cities where there were between 60 and 70 thousand inhabitants. They built a shrine, playgrounds and complex systems, water storage, discussed philosophy, enjoy the first hot chocolate in the world and have developed a highly accurate astronomical calendar that some misinterpreted and concluded that predicts the end of the world in December 2012. Agriculture also flourished - the slopes of the hills are transformed into terraces that nourish all growing population.

But then came the decline that lasted more than two centuries. By the 1100th sometimes advanced cities become desolate. Why did the Mayans migrated and where did they go?

Complex reasons

When you are in the 19 century archaeologists began to excavate the ruins srednjoameričke first appeared in numerous theories about the causes of catastrophic failure May. However, new studies reveal that these reasons were numerous and complex - from war to drought and famine.

According to the latest research, presented in the new issue of the journal Science, climate change played a key role in this process, and the Maya themselves were partly responsible. Drought caused problems in agriculture and the instability that resulted in the war and the fall of the big cities. Following the political decline occurred is another great drought which prevented the recovery of civilization.

This theory is not new, some scientists are already some evidence substantiated. However, a new study researchers have so far the most accurate weather analysis and scale droughts recorded in the caves, and they tried to agree on the whole mosaic of stories about the collapse of the Maya.

An international team led by Kenneth Douglas, an anthropologist from Pennsylvania State University took samples of stalagmites in a cave York Baluma which was discovered near the ancient Mayan settlement. Stalagmites, which are formed by deposition of minerals in the water that drips from above, grow faster in more rainy years. Therefore, they are good indicators of climate conditions. One of the collected samples is so large and old that shows what were the weather changes in the past two centuries.

The study authors write that their analysis found that the early classical period of May was unusually wet, wetter than the previous thousand years. During this period, the 440th to 660, the population grew and cities have sprung up. All the important achievements of the Mayan civilization was in the 200-year Tinak. If stalagmites reveal that these two centuries was actually an anomaly. "Mayan systems were based on samples of time in which there was plenty of rain," said Kenneth, adding: "When they changed more samples could not be maintained."

Distrust and instability

Religious and political system based on the Mayan belief that the rulers directly communicate with the gods. When these communications are not created rain and harvest, have been developed tension. For example, in only 25 of 750 to 775th 39 warring rulers ordered the same number of stone monuments that bear witness to the conflicts, wars and strategic alliances. But circumstances have in time become even more difficult. From the 1020th the 1100th region swept longest drought in 2000. With her yields have fallen, and performed famine, pestilence, and emigration. Until the arrival of the conquistadors in the 16th Ages of May in the interior fell by 90 percent, and many cities were already abandoned.

Human impact on climate

Scientists believe that the Mayans themselves partly caused by climate change and drought. "The region lived tens of millions of people who build cities and farms at the expense of forests," said climatologist Benjamin I. Cook. His computer simulations have shown that deforestation interrupted the natural cycle of the flow of moisture from the soil into the atmosphere and reduce moisture locally catastrophic for five to 15 percent. When this is added the natural trend, it is clear that the situation was untenable. Cook warns us that something similar could happen today. 

Why did the Maya have recovered?

According to a survey in August in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences released a Billy Lee Turner Mayan civilization ceased to exist even after the fall of the city even after the arrival of the conquistadors. "In this area there are still Mayan people. Their culture and traditions have held, however, cities are not, "said Turner, who is considered to be one of the few historical examples of similar evictions so radical Cambodian city of Angkor Wat in the 15th century.